Fossil range: Permian to Recent (if incl. Chelonia)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Superclass: Tetrapoda
Class: Sauropsida/Reptilia
Subclass: Anapsida/Parareptilia
Order: Procolophonomorpha
Romer, 1964

See taxonomy

The Procolophonomorpha are an order or clade of early reptiles that appeared during the Middle Permian. They constitute a diverse asemblage that includes a number of lizard-like forms, as well as more diverse types like the Pareiasaurs. The most important subclade, the Procolophonia are traditionally thought to be ancestral to (and henxce to include) the Turtles. Lee 1995, 1996, 1997 argues that turtles evolved from Pareiasaurs but this view is by no means held unanimously. Rieppel and deBraga 1996 and deBraga & Rieppel, 1997 argue that turtles evolved from Sauropterygians


The following is based chiefly on Mikko's Phylogeny Archive, but also on Carroll 1988 and Laurin & Gauthier 1996. Note that classifications and even terminology vary widely, according to which authority one cites.


  • Carroll, R. L., 1988: Appendix; Vertebrate Classification. in Carroll, R. L. 1988: Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, W. H. Freeman and company, New York
  • deBraga M. & O. Rieppel. 1997. Reptile phylogeny and the interrelationships of turtles. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 120: 281-354.
  • deBraga, M. & Reisz, R. R., 1996: The Early Permian reptile Acleistorhinus pteroticus and its phylogenetic position. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology: Vol. 16, #3, pp. 384-395
  • Laurin, M., & Gauthier, J. A., 1996 Phylogeny and Classification of Amniotes, at the Tree of Life Web Project
  • Lee, M. S. Y. 1995. Historical burden in systematics and the interrelationships of 'Parareptiles'. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 70: 459-547.
  • Lee M. S. Y. 1996. Correlated progression and the origin of turtles. Nature 379: 812-815.
  • Lee, M. S. Y., 1997: Pareiasaur phylogeny and the origin of turtles. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society: Vol. 120, pp. 197-280
  • Rieppel O. & M. deBraga. 1996. Turtles as diapsid reptiles. Nature 384: 453-455.

External links

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